## PSY 520 Graduate Statistics Assignments – GCU Essay

PSY 520 Graduate Statistics Assignments – GCU Essay

**Module 5 Exercises**

Grand Canyon University: PSY-520: Graduate Statistics 2014

Chapter 10:

3. Explain in your own words why it is important to know the possible errors we might make when rejecting or failing to reject the null hypothesis.

9. A primatologist believes that rhesus monkeys possess curiosity. She reasons that, if this is true, then they should prefer novel stimulation to repetitive stimulation. An experiment is conducted in which 12 rhesus monkeys are randomly selected from the university colony

and taught to press two bars. Pressing bar 1 always produces the same sound, whereas bar 2 produces a novel sound each time it is pressed. After learning to press the bars, the monkeys are tested for 15 minutes, during which they have free access to both bars. The number of presses on each bar during the 15 minutes is recorded. The resulting data are as follows:

Subject Bar 1 Bar 2

1 20 40

2 18 25

3 24 38

4 14 27

5 5 31

6 26 21

7 15 32

8 29 38

9 15 25

10 9 18

11 25 32

12 31 28

a. What is the alternative hypothesis? In this case, assume a non-directional hypothesis is appropriate because there is insufficient empirical basis to warrant a directional hypothesis.

b. What is the null hypothesis?

c. Using ? = 0.052 tail, what is your conclusion?

d. What error might you be making by your conclusion in part c?

e. To what population does your conclusion apply?

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13. A researcher is interested in determining whether acupuncture affects pain tolerance. An experiment is performed in which 15 students are randomly chosen from a large pool of university undergraduate volunteers. Each subject serves in two conditions. In both conditions, each subject receives a short-duration electric shock to the pulp of a tooth. The shock intensity is set to produce a moderate level of pain to the unanesthetized subject. After the shock is terminated, each subject rates the perceived level of pain on a scale of 0–10, with 10 being the highest level. In the experimental condition, each subject receives the appropriate acupuncture treatment prior to receiving the shock. The control condition is made as similar to the experimental condition as possible, except a placebo treatment is given instead of acupuncture. The two conditions are run on separate days at the same time of day. The pain ratings in the accompanying table are obtained.

a. What is the alternative hypothesis? Assume a non-directional hypothesis is appropriate.

b. What is the null hypothesis?

c. Using ? = 0.052 tail, what is your conclusion?

d. What error might you be making by your conclusion in part c?

e. To what population does your conclusion apply?

Subject Acupuncture Placebo

1 4 6

2 2 5

3 1 5

4 5 3

5 3 6

6 2 4

7 3 7

8 2 6

9 1 8

10 4 3

11 3 7

12 4 8

13 5 3

14 2 5

PSY 520 Graduate Statistics -GCU

Chapter 12:

3. How are sampling distributions generated using the empirical sampling approach?

5. What are the assumptions underlying the use of the z test?

8. How do each of the following differ?

a. s and s

b. s² and ?²

c. µ and µ

d. ? and ?

16. How does increasing the N of an experiment affect the following?

a. Power

b. Beta

c. Alpha

d. Size of real effect

20. A set of sample scores from an experiment has an N = 30 and an obt = 19.

a. Can we reject the null hypothesis that the sample is a random sample from a normal population with µ = 22 and ? = 8? Use ? = 0.011 tail. Assume the sample mean is in the correct direction.

b. What is the power of the experiment to detect a real effect such that µreal = 20?

c. What is the power to detect a µreal = 20 if N is increased to 100?

d. What value does N have to equal to achieve a power of 0.8000 to detect a µreal = 20? Use the nearest table value for zobt.

21. On the basis of her newly developed technique, a student believes she can reduce the amount of time schizophrenics spend in an institution. As director of training at a nearby institution, you agree to let her try her method on 20 schizophrenics, randomly sampled from your institution. The mean duration that schizophrenics stay at your institution is 85 weeks, with a standard deviation of 15 weeks. The scores are normally distributed. The results of the experiment show that the patients treated by the student stay a mean duration of 78 weeks, with a standard deviation of 20 weeks.

a. What is the alternative hypothesis? In this case, assume a non-directional hypothesis is appropriate because there are insufficient theoretical and empirical bases to warrant a directional hypothesis.

b. What is the null hypothesis?

c. What do you conclude about the student’s technique? Use ? = 0.052 tail.

25. A physical education professor believes that exercise can slow the aging process. For the past 10 years, he has been conducting an exercise class for 14 individuals who are currently 50 years old. Normally, as one ages, maximum oxygen consumption decreases. The national norm for maximum oxygen consumption in 50-year-old individuals is 30 milliliters per kilogram per minute, with a standard deviation of 8.6. The mean of the 14 individuals is 40 milliliters per kilogram per minute. What do you conclude? Use ? = 0.051 tail.

**References**

Academic Web Services (n.d.). The Visual Learner – Statistics. Retrieved from: .

Pagano, R. (2013). Understanding Statistics in the Behavioral Sciences (10th ed.). Wadsworth-Cengage Learning.

### PSY 520 Graduate Statistics Essay Assignments

PSY 520 Week 1 Discussion 1 Latest-GCU

Review the levels of measurement terms in the Statistics Visual Learner media piece. Compare and contrast Stevens’s four scales of measurement, and explain when each type of scale should be used.

PSY 520 Week 1 Discussion 2 Latest-GCU

The professor teaching a large introductory class gives a final exam that has alternate forms, A, B, and C. A student taking the exam using Form B is upset because she claims that Form B is much harder than Forms A and C. Discuss how percentile point data might be useful to determine if the student is correct.

**PSY 520 Week 2 Discussion 1 Latest-GCU**

The process of random sampling guarantees that the sample selected will be representative of the population. Is this statement true Discuss.

**PSY 520 Week 2 Discussion 2 Latest-GCU**

Review the video on Normal Distribution in the Calculations section of the Statistics Visual Learner media piece.

Bob compares his SAT Verbal score of 400 to Marge’s ACT Verbal score of 20. I beat you, he exclaims.

My score is 20 times your score! Although his multiplication is good, his logic is faulty. Explain why. PSY 520 Graduate Statistics Essay Assignments

**PSY 520 Week 3 Discussion 1 Latest-GCU**

Review the video Linear Correlation in the Calculations section of the Statistics Visual Learner media piece.

It is sometimes said that the higher the correlation between two variables, the more likely the relationship is causal. Do you think this is correct Discuss?

**PSY 520 Week 3 Discussion 2 Latest-GCU**

Discuss the strengths and weaknesses of correlational and regression studies; discuss concepts such as positive and negative correlations, correlation coefficients, confounding, and causality.

**PSY 520 Week 4 Discussion 1 Latest-GCU**

Explain why there is an inverse relationship between committing a Type I error and committing a Type II error. What is the best way to reduce both kinds of error? PSY 520 Graduate Statistics Essay Assignments

**PSY 520 Week 4 Discussion 2 Latest-GCU**

Review the term Significance Test in the Statistics Visual Learner media piece.

When a newspaper or magazine article reports the results of a study and draws a conclusion without also reporting whether the results are statistically significant, what are the possible reasons for doing so how seriously should you take the conclusion offered in such a study Discuss? PSY 520 Graduate Statistics Essay Assignments

**PSY 520 Week 5 Discussion 1 Latest-GCU**

Explain why using the t statistic may be an appropriate alternative to using a z-score (use the concept of estimated standard error to justify your answer).

**PSY 520 Week 5 Discussion 2 Latest-GCU**

Discuss how the t-test for correlated groups and the t-test for single samples are alike and different.

**PSY 520 Week 6 Discussion 1 Latest-GCU**

Review the four ANOVA videos in the Calculations section of the Statistics Visual Learner media piece.

Explain the major differences between analyzing a one-way ANOVA versus a two-factor ANOVA, and explain why factorial designs with two or more independent variables (or factors) can become very difficult to interpret. PSY 520 Graduate Statistics Essay Assignments

**PSY 520 Week 6 Discussion 2 Latest-GCU**

Explain how the ANOVA technique avoids the problem of the inflated probability of making Type I error that would arise using the alternative method of comparing groups two at a time using the t-test for independent groups.

**PSY 520 Week 7 Discussion 1 Latest-GCU**

Review the three Non-parametric test videos in the Calculations section of the Statistics Visual Learner media piece.

A researcher is examining preferences among four new flavors of ice cream. A sample of n = 80 people is obtained. Each person tastes all four flavors and then picks a favorite. The distribution of preferences is as follows. Do these data indicate any significance preferences among the four flavors Test at the .05 level of significance? PSY 520 Graduate Statistics Essay Assignments

Ice Cream Flavor | |||

A | B | C | D |

12 | 18 | 28 | 22 |

**PSY 520 Week 7 Discussion 2 Latest-GCU**

Is it true that parametric tests are generally more powerful than nonparametric tests If so, give two reasons why you might choose to use a nonparametric test instead of a parametric test. PSY 520 Graduate Statistics Essay Assignments

**PSY 520 Week 8 Discussion 1 Latest-GCU**

To determine whether a new sleeping pill has an effect that varies with dosage, a researcher randomly assigns adult insomniacs, in equal numbers, to receive either 4 or 8 grams of the sleeping pill. The amount of sleeping time is measured for each subject during an 8-hour period after the administration of the dosage. What type of design is this, and what type of statistic is needed to analyze the data?

**PSY 520 Week 8 Discussion 2 Latest-GCU**

Dr. Bill Board designs a 2 X 2 between-subjects factorial design, where Factor A is word frequency (low or high) and Factor B is category cues (no cues or cues). Assume that the data are interval. What type of statistic is needed to analyze the data? PSY 520 Graduate Statistics -GCU

**PSY 520 Week 2 Exercise Latest-GCU**

**Details:**

Complete the following exercises from Review Questions located at the end of each chapter and put them into a Word document to be submitted as directed by the instructor.

- Chapter 1, numbers 1.8 and 1.9
- Chapter 2, numbers 2.14, 2.17, and 2.18
- Chapter 3, numbers 3.13, 3.14, 3.18, and 3.19
- Chapter 4, numbers 4.9, 4.14, 4.17, and 4.19

Show all relevant work; use the equation editor in Microsoft Word when necessary.

**PSY 520 Week 3 Probability Project Latest-GCU**

**Details:**

Use the document “Probability Project” to complete the assignment.

While APA format is not required for the body of this assignment, solid academic writing is expected, and documentation of sources should be presented using APA formatting guidelines, which can be found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center.

PSY-520 Graduate Statistics

Topic 3 – Probability Project

__Directions__

Use the following information to complete the assignment. While APA format is not required for the body of this assignment, solid academic writing is expected, and documentation of sources should be presented using APA formatting guidelines, which can be found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. PSY 520 Graduate Statistics Essay Assignments

There are many misconceptions about probability which may include the following.

- All events are equally likely
- Later events may be affected by or compensate for earlier ones
- When determining probability from statistical data, sample size is irrelevant
- Results of games of skill are unaffected by the nature of the participants
- “LuckyUnlucky” numbers can influence random events
- In random event involving selection, results are dependent on number rather than rations
- If events are random then the results of a series of independent events are equally likely

The following statements are all incorrect. Explain the statements and the errors fully using the probability rules discussed in topic two. PSY 520 Graduate Statistics -GCU

**1.** I have flipped and unbiased coin three times and got heads, it is more likely to get tails the next time I flip it.

**2.** The Rovers play Mustangs. The Rovers can win, loose, or draw, so the probability that they win is 13.

**3.** I roll two dice and ad the results. The probability of getting a total of 6 is 112 because there are 12 different possibilities and 6 is one of them.

**4.** Mr. Purple has to have a major operation. 90% of the people who have this operation make a complete recovery. There is a 90% chance that Mr. Purple will make a complete recovery if he has this operation.

**5.** I flip two coins. The probability of getting heads and tails is 13 because I can get Heads and Heads, Heads and Tails, or Tails and Tails.

**6.** 13 is an unlucky number so you are less likely to win raffles with ticket number 13 than with a different dumber. PSY 520 Graduate Statistics -GCU

**PSY 520 Week 3 Exercise Latest-GCU**

**Details**

Complete the following exercises located at the end of each chapter and put them into a Word document to be submitted as directed by the instructor.

Show all relevant work; use the equation editor in Microsoft Word when necessary.

**1.** Chapter 6, numbers 6.7, 6.10, and 6.11

**2.** Chapter 7, numbers 7.8, 7.10, and 7.13

**PSY 520 Week 4 Exercise Latest-GCU**

**Details:**

Complete the following exercises located at the end of each chapter and put them into a Word document to be submitted as directed by the instructor.

Show all relevant work; use the equation editor in Microsoft Word when necessary. PSY 520 Graduate Statistics -GCU

**1.** Chapter 9, numbers 9.7, 9.8, 9.9, 9.13, and 9.14

**2.** Chapter 10, numbers 10.9, 10.10, 10.11, and 10.12

**3.** Chapter 11, numbers 11.11, 11.19, and 11.20

**4.** Chapter 12, numbers 12.7, 12.8, and 12.10

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**PSY 520 Week 5 Exercise Latest-GCU**

**Details:**

Complete the following exercises located at the end of each chapter and put them into a Word document to be submitted as directed by the instructor.

Show all relevant work; use the equation editor in Microsoft Word when necessary.

**1.** Chapter 13, numbers 13.6, 13.8, 13.9, and 13.10

**2.** Chapter 14, numbers 14.11, 14.12, and 14.14

**3.** Chapter 15, numbers 15.7, 15.8, 15.10 and 15.14

**PSY 520 Week 5 Correlation and Regression Latest-GCU**

**Details:**

Use the attached document “Correlation and Regression” to complete the assignment.

While APA format is not required for the body of this assignment, solid academic writing is expected, and documentation of sources should be presented using APA formatting guidelines, which can be found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. PSY 520 Graduate Statistics -GCU

This benchmark assignment assesses the following programmatic competencies 3.1 Interpret psychological phenomena using scientific reasoning.

PSY-520 Graduate Statistics

Topic 5– Benchmark – Correlation and Regression Project

__Directions__

Use the following information to complete the questions below. While APA format is not required for the body of this assignment, solid academic writing is expected, and documentation of sources should be presented using APA formatting guidelines, which can be found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. PSY 520 Graduate Statistics Essay Assignments

1. Select at least three variables that you believe have a linear relationship.

a. Specify which variable is dependent and which are independent.

2. Collect the data for these variables and describe your data collection technique and why it was appropriate as well as why the sample size was best. PSY 520 Graduate Statistics -GCU

a. Submit the data collected by submitting the SPSS data file with your submission.

3. Find the Correlation coefficient for each of the possible pairings of dependent and independent variables and describe the relationship in terms of strength and direction.

4. Find a linear model of the relationship between the three (or more) variables of interest.

5. Explain the validity of the model.

**PSY 520 Week 6 Exercise Latest-GCU**

**Details:**

Show all relevant work; use the equation editor in Microsoft Word when necessary. PSY 520 Graduate Statistics Essay Assignments

**1.** Chapter 16, numbers 16.9, 16.10, 16.12 and 16.14

**2.** Chapter 17, numbers 17.6, 17.7, and 17.8

**3.** Chapter 18, numbers 18.8, 18.11, and 18.12

**PSY 520 Week 7 Exercise Latest-GCU**

**Details:**

Show all relevant work; use the equation editor in Microsoft Word when necessary. PSY 520 Graduate Statistics Essay Assignments

1. Chapter 19, numbers 19.9, 19.10, 19.13, 19.14, and 19.16

2. Chapter 20, numbers 20.5, 20.6, 20.7, and 20.10

**PSY 520 Week 7 MANOVA Project Latest-GCU**

PSY-520 Graduate Statistics

Topic 7 – MANOVA Project

__Directions__

Use the following information to complete the assignment. While APA format is not required for the body of this assignment, solid academic writing is expected, and documentation of sources should be presented using APA formatting guidelines, which can be found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center.

A researcher randomly assigns 33 subjects to one of three groups. PSY 520 Graduate Statistics -GCU

Group 1 receives technical dietary information interactively from an on-line website.

Group 2 receives the same information from a nurse practitioner, while

Group 3 receives the information from a video tape made by the same nurse practitioner.

The researcher looked at three different ratings of the presentation; difficulty, usefulness, and importance to determine if there is a difference in the modes of presentation.

In particular, the researcher is interested in whether the interactive website is superior because that is the most cost-effective way of delivering the information. PSY 520 Graduate Statistics -GCU

Group | Usefulness | Difficulty | Importance |

1 | 20 | 5 | 18 |

1 | 25 | 9 | 8 |

1 | 23 | 15 | 20 |

1 | 16 | 9 | 22 |

1 | 20 | 6 | 22 |

1 | 28 | 14 | 8 |

1 | 20 | 6 | 13 |

1 | 25 | 8 | 13 |

1 | 24 | 10 | 24 |

1 | 18 | 10 | 20 |

1 | 17 | 9 | 4 |

2 | 28 | 7 | 14 |

2 | 25 | 14 | 5 |

2 | 26 | 9 | 20 |

2 | 19 | 15 | 22 |

2 | 29 | 14 | 12 |

2 | 15 | 6 | 2 |

2 | 29 | 10 | 5 |

2 | 26 | 11 | 1 |

2 | 22 | 5 | 2 |

2 | 15 | 15 | 14 |

2 | 29 | 6 | 4 |

2 | 15 | 6 | 3 |

3 | 22 | 8 | 12 |

3 | 27 | 9 | 14 |

3 | 21 | 10 | 7 |

3 | 17 | 9 | 1 |

3 | 16 | 7 | 12 |

3 | 19 | 9 | 7 |

3 | 23 | 10 | 1 |

3 | 27 | 9 | 5 |

3 | 23 | 9 | 6 |

3 | 16 | 14 | 22 |

**1.** Run the appropriate analysis of the data and interpret the results. PSY 520 Graduate Statistics -GCU

**2.** How could this study have been done differently why or why not would this approach be better

**PSY 520 Week 8 Research Question Project Latest-GCU**

**Details:**

In 1,250-1,500 words, answer the following questions about possible research options.

- Create a research question in the field of psychology that you are interested in researching. Write questions clearly. Include a brief background of the problem you are proposing and why it is important to the field of psychology.
- State the null and alternative hypothesis (in both words and statistical notation) need to address the research question. PSY 520 Graduate Statistics Essay Assignments
- Choose which statistical test would be used to conduct the study and support it with research.
- Describe the type of data needs to be collected to conduct the study and what techniques are best for collecting data.

Use three to five scholarly resources to support your explanations.

Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required.

This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.

You are required to submit this assignment to Turnitin. Please refer to the directions in the Student Success Center. PSY 520 Graduate Statistics -GCU

**PSY 520 Week 8 Exercise Latest-GCU**

**Details:**

Show all relevant work; use the equation editor in Microsoft Word when necessary.

**1.** Chapter 21, numbers 21.4, 21.7, 21.8, 21